While most languages do not use wholly logographic writing systems, many languages use some logograms. A good example of modern western logograms are the hindu-Arabic numerals : everyone who uses those symbols understands what 1 means whether he or she calls it one, eins, uno, yi, ichi, ehad, ena, or jedan. Other western logograms include the ampersand, used for and, the at sign @, used in many contexts for at, the percent sign and the many signs representing units of currency (, and.) Logograms are sometimes called ideograms, a word that refers to symbols. Some nonlinguists distinguish between lexigraphy and ideography, where symbols in lexigraphies represent words and symbols in ideographies represent words or morphemes. The most important (and, to a degree, the only surviving) modern logographic writing system is the Chinese one, whose characters have been used with varying degrees of modification in varieties of Chinese, japanese, korean, vietnamese, and other east Asian languages. Ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs and the mayan writing system are also systems with certain logographic features, although they have marked phonetic features as well and are no longer in current use. Vietnamese speakers switched to the latin alphabet in the 20th century and the use of Chinese characters in Korean is increasingly rare.
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Kana, akkadian segmentally coded,. Hebrew, syriac, arabic, ethiopian, amharic, devanagari segmentally linear complete (alphabet. Greco-latin, cyrillic defective,. Ugaritic, phoenician, aramaic, old south Arabian, paleo-hebrew Logographic systems edit main article: Logogram A logogram is a single written character which represents a complete grammatical word. Most traditional Chinese characters are classified as logograms. As each character represents a single word (or, more precisely, a morpheme many and logograms are required to write all the words of language. The vast array of logograms and the memorization of what they mean are major disadvantages of logographic systems over alphabetic systems. However, since the meaning is inherent to the symbol, the same logographic system can theoretically be used to represent different languages. In practice, the ability to communicate across languages only works for the closely related varieties of Chinese, as differences in syntax reduce the crosslinguistic portability of a given logographic system. Japanese uses Chinese logograms extensively in its writing systems, with most of the symbols carrying the same or similar meanings. However, the grammatical differences between Japanese and Chinese are significant enough that a long Chinese text is not readily understandable to a japanese reader without any knowledge of basic Chinese grammar, though short and concise phrases such as those on signs and newspaper headlines are.
Linear b, kana, cherokee mono-phonemic writing system Sampson draws a distinction between semasiography and glottography semasiography, relating visible marks to meaning directly without reference to any specific spoken language glottography, using visible marks to represent forms of a spoken language logography, representing a spoken language. Morphemes or words phonography, achieving the same goal by assigning marks to elements of the "second articulation. Phonemes, syllables defrancis, 17 criticizing Sampson's 18 introduction of semasiographic writing and featural alphabets stresses the phonographic quality of writing proper pictures nonwriting writing rebus syllabic systems pure syllabic,. Linear b, yi, kana, cherokee morpho-syllabic,. Sumerian, Chinese, mayan consonantal morpho-consonantal,. Egyptian pure consonantal,. Phoenician alphabetic pure phonemic,. English Faber 19 categorizes phonographic writing by two levels, linearity and coding: logographic,. Chinese, ancient Egyptian phonographic syllabically linear syllabically coded,.assignments
Although the English letters run from left to right, the Chinese explanations run from top to bottom then right to left, as traditionally written several approaches have been taken to classify writing systems, the most common and basic one is a broad division into three. The term complex system is sometimes used to describe those where the admixture makes classification problematic. Modern linguists regard such approaches, including Diringer's 15 pictographic script ideographic script analytic transitional script phonetic script alphabetic script as too simplistic, often considering the categories to be incomparable. Hill 16 split writing into three major categories of linguistic analysis, one of which covers discourses and is not usually considered writing proper: discourse system iconic discourse system,. Amerindian conventional discourse system,. Quipu morphemic writing system,. Egyptian, sumerian, maya, chinese phonemic writing system partial phonemic writing system,. Egyptian, hebrew, arabic poly-phonemic writing system,.
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The best known examples are: The invention of the first writing systems is roughly contemporary with the beginning of the Bronze age in the late neolithic dubious discuss of the late 4th millennium. The sumerian archaic cuneiform script and the Egyptian hieroglyphs are generally considered the earliest autobiography writing systems, both emerging out of their ancestral proto-literate symbol systems from 3400 to 3200 bc with earliest coherent texts from about 2600. It is generally agreed that Sumerian writing was an independent invention; however, it is debated whether Egyptian writing was developed completely independently of Sumerian, or was a case of cultural diffusion. A similar debate exists for the Chinese script, which developed around 1200. Chinese script are probably an independent invention, because there is no evidence of contact between China and the literate civilizations of the near East, 10 and because of the distinct differences between the mesopotamian and Chinese approaches to logography and phonetic representation. 11 The pre-columbian Mesoamerican writing systems (including among others Olmec and maya scripts ) are generally believed to have had independent origins. A hieroglyphic writing system training used by pre-colonial mi'kmaq, that was observed by missionaries from the 17th to 19th centuries, is thought to have developed independently.
Although, there is some debate over whether or not this was a fully formed system or just a series of mnemonic pictographs. It is thought that the first consonantal alphabetic writing appeared before 2000 bc, as a representation of language developed by semitic tribes in the sinai-peninsula (see history of the alphabet ). Most other alphabets in the world today either descended from this one innovation, many via the Phoenician alphabet, or were directly inspired by its design. The first true alphabet is the Greek script which consistently represents vowels since 800. 12 13 The latin alphabet, a direct descendant, is by far the most common writing system in use. 14 Functional classification edit for lists of writing systems by type, see list of writing systems. This textbook for puyi shows the English alphabet.
Glyph, sign and character edit The terms glyph, sign and character are sometimes used to refer to a grapheme. Common usage varies from discipline to discipline; compare cuneiform sign, maya glyph, chinese character. The glyphs of most writing systems are made up of lines (or strokes) and are therefore called linear, but there are glyphs in non-linear writing systems made up of other types of marks, such as Cuneiform and Braille. Complete and partial writing systems edit Writing systems may be regarded as complete according to the extent to which they are able to represent all that may be expressed in the spoken language, while a partial writing system is limited in what it can convey. 7 Writing systems, languages and conceptual systems edit Writing systems can be independent from languages, one can have multiple writing systems for a language,.
G., hindi and Urdu ; 8 and one can also have one writing system for multiple languages,. G., the Arabic script. Chinese characters were also borrowed by variant countries as their early writing systems,. G., the early writing systems of vietnamese language until the beginning of the 20th century. To represent a conceptual system, one uses one or more languages,. G., mathematics is a conceptual system 9 and one may use first-order logic and a natural language together in representation. History edit main article: History of writing Writing systems were preceded by proto-writing, systems of ideographic and/or early mnemonic symbols.
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6 Orthography refers to the method and rules of writing observed writing structure (literal meaning, "correct writing and particularly for alphabetic systems, includes the concept of spelling. Grapheme and phoneme edit main articles: grapheme and phoneme a grapheme is a specific base unit of a writing system. Graphemes are the minimally significant elements which taken together comprise the set of "building blocks" out of which texts made up of one or more writing systems may be constructed, along with rules of correspondence and use. The concept is similar to that of the phoneme used in the study of spoken languages. For example, in the latin -based writing system of standard contemporary English, examples of graphemes include the majuscule and minuscule forms of the twenty-six letters of the alphabet (corresponding to various phonemes marks of punctuation (mostly non-phonemic and a few vertebrae other symbols such as those. An individual grapheme may be represented in a wide variety of ways, where each variation is visually distinct in some regard, but all are interpreted as representing the "same" grapheme. These individual variations are known as allographs of a grapheme (compare with the term allophone used in linguistic study). For example, the minuscule letter a has different allographs when written as a cursive, block, or typed letter. The choice of a particular allograph may be influenced by the medium used, the writing instrument, the stylistic choice of the writer, the preceding and following graphemes in the text, the time available for writing, the intended audience, and the largely unconscious features.
However, the development of writing systems, and the process by which they have supplanted traditional oral systems of communication, have been sporadic, uneven and slow. Once established, writing systems generally mirrored change more slowly than their spoken counterparts. Thus they often preserve features and expressions which are no longer current in the spoken language. One of the great benefits of writing systems is that they can preserve a permanent record of information expressed in a language. All writing systems require: at least one set of defined base elements or symbols, individually termed signs and collectively called a script ; 3 at least one set of rules and conventions ( orthography ) understood and shared by a community, which assigns meaning. Basic terminology edit In the examination of individual scripts, the study of writing systems has developed along partially independent lines. Thus, the terminology employed differs somewhat from field to field. Text, writing, reading and orthography edit The generic term text 4 refers to an instance of written or spoken material with the latter having been transcribed in some way. The act of composing and recording a text may be referred to as writing, 5 and the act of viewing and interpreting the text as reading.
prone to the same types. Soon after, writing provided a reliable form of long distance communication. With the advent of publishing, it provided the medium for an early form of mass communication. The creation of a new alphabetic writing system for a language with an existing logographic writing system is called alphabetization, as when the people's Republic of China studied the prospect of alphabetizing the Chinese languages with Latin script, cyrillic script, arabic script, and even numbers. Contents General properties edit Chinese characters are morpho-syllabic. Each one represents a syllable with a distinct meaning, but some characters may have multiple meanings or pronunciations Writing systems are distinguished from other possible symbolic communication systems in that a writing system is always associated with at least one spoken language. In contrast, visual representations such as drawings, paintings, and non-verbal items on maps, such as contour lines, are not language-related. Some symbols on information signs, such as the symbols for male and female, are also not language related, but can grow to become part of language if they are often used in conjunction with other language elements. Some other symbols, such as numerals and the ampersand, are not directly linked to any specific language, but are often used in writing and thus must be considered part of writing systems. Every human community possesses language, which many regard as an innate and defining condition of humanity.
Other categories include abjads, which differ from alphabets in that letter vowels are not indicated, and abugidas or alphasyllabaries, with each character representing a consonantvowel pairing. Alphabets typically use a set of 20-to-35 symbols to fully express a language citation needed, whereas syllabaries can have 80-to-100 citation needed, and logographies can have several hundreds of symbols. Citation needed most systems will typically have an ordering of its symbol elements so that groups of them can be coded into larger clusters like words or acronyms (generally lexemes giving rise to many more possibilities ( permutations ) in meanings than the symbols can. Systems will also enable the stringing together of these smaller groupings (sometimes referred to by the generic term 'character strings in order to enable a full expression of the language. The reading step can be accomplished purely in the mind as an internal process, or expressed orally. A special set of symbols known as punctuation is used to aid in structure and organization of many writing systems and can be used to help capture nuances and variations in the message's meaning that are communicated verbally by cues in timing, tone, accent, inflection. A writing system will also typically have a method for formatting recorded messages that follows the spoken version's rules like its grammar and syntax so that the reader will have the meaning of the intended message accurately preserved. Writing systems were preceded by proto-writing, which used pictograms, ideograms and other mnemonic symbols. Proto-writing lacked the ability to capture and express a full range of thoughts and ideas.
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A writing system is water any conventional method of visually representing verbal communication. While both writing and speech are useful in conveying messages, writing differs in also being a reliable form of information storage and transfer. 1, the processes of encoding and decoding writing systems involve shared understanding between writers and readers of the meaning behind the sets of characters that make up a script. Writing is usually recorded onto a durable medium, such as paper or electronic storage, although non-durable methods may also be used, such as writing on a computer display, on a blackboard, in sand, or by skywriting. The general attributes of writing systems can be placed into broad categories such as alphabets, syllabaries, or logographies. Any particular system can have attributes of more than one category. In the alphabetic category, there is a standard set of letters (basic written symbols or graphemes ) of consonants and vowels that encode based on the general principle that the letters (or letter pair/groups) represent speech sounds. In a syllabary, each symbol correlates to a syllable or mora. In a logography, each character represents a word, morpheme, or other semantic units.